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By Mr. Tibor Szabo, Official Member of the IPO Section Slovakia.

- Terrorism is a very complex social phenomenon that can be characterized as systematic perpetration of violence in order to provoke fear, enabling political to be achieved objectives. Any illegal use of force and violence against persons or persons shall be considered terrorism property with the intention of intimidating the government, the civilian population and a certain group and thus achieve certain political or social goals.

If terrorists want to draw attention to themselves, proudly they report to their actions, sometimes vice versa, in an effort to reduce risks, they choose a strategy of anonymity. For the symbol of terrorism is often considered an explosion, the scattering of a hitherto existing object, buildings.

Terrorist acts can occur for a variety of reasons. It generally exists several main objectives of terrorism:

Advertising goal - it is about attracting attention through the mass media.

Violent action is expressed effort to publish the program of the terrorist organization.

To a significant extent today's global media outlets, which seek such drastic ones, also help exclusive news.

- a one-off act of violence is to achieve objectives such as the liquidation of a person or persons, destruction of a particular object or objects. In an effort to force negotiations, they serve terrorist acts to intimidate political power or to coerce political power.

In this tactical use of violence, the victims of attacks are often innocent people who do not nothing to do with the preparation or implementation of government policy.

- the strategic goal-terrorism is a destabilizing tool of the regime. It is based on the premise that terrorist acts provoke state power to such repression and violence, which should result in a revolutionary uprising.

They assume this in particular anarchist doctrinal concepts.

Terrorism, which became a new threat, changed its character on March 20, 1995.

Then after for the first time, terrorists used chemical warfare agents against the civilian population. In Tokyo, the nerve substance sarin was dropped.

As a result, more than 550 people had to seek medical attention.

In the number of manifestations of terrorism, their analysis defines the types, kinds, and forms of terrorism. This is an issue that is constantly evolving due to the changing nature of terrorism processes mainly in connection with its current causes, sources, and manifestations.

Groups carrying out suicide bombers differ in form, size, ideological orientation, goals, and support.

There are currently many groups in the world active in this type of attack, but virtually every terrorist group has the opportunity to commit a suicide terrorist attack.

Types and forms of terrorist attack

The types of terrorism are usually defined on the basis of its selected external ones

speeches. The most frequently mentioned include: international, domestic city, rural, religious, nationalist, criminal, subversive, narcoticism, computer nuclear, extremist, social, informational, psychological and more.Terrorist manifestations include:

- abductions of persons,

- murders,

- bombings,

- hijackings,

- suicide attacks by various means,

- bioterrorism - use of biological warfare agents.


The latest types of terrorism are bioterrorism and agroterrorism - especially in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks in the form of poisoning of air, water resources and food with various biological substances.Among the most common manifestations of terrorist attacks include bombings, where bombs can be used as explosives distance or means that may have the character of a bomb in a particular use.

Forms of terrorism are identified primarily on the basis of the means used.

The most used include:

-assassinations and political assassinations, the use of weapons in bank robberies and other ways of raising funds, etc. It is the oldest and relatively the simplest form of terrorism. In this form of terrorism, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish, and criminal activity or act of a terrorist with political motivation. politically motivated abductions, takeovers, and hostages of which they are victims representatives of state and social power, or even random persons. Detention of hostages terrorists are mainly used to pressure the government and the ministries of power in negotiating their own


This form of terrorism also appears to be intertwined with criminal activity, or with the socio-pathological behavior of individuals. Hijackings of aircraft and other means of transport (ships, buses), usually with crew and passengers.

The hijackings have become part of the arsenal of terrorists, especially in the 1970s years and used mainly by Palestinian terrorist groups.

They were carried out in order to achieve various policy objectives. Symbolically they most strongly demonstrated the international nature of terrorism because they did not respect borders States and victims of kidnappings, regardless of nationality or nationality.

-the use of explosive devices (bomb attacks) aimed at persons or against significant objects.

-Attacks against persons are more often widespread and only in a smaller number of cases,

-they are directed against high-ranking individuals especially in government, industry,

-trade, finance and power. Explosive devices are placed in places with a high concentration

-of residence and movement of people to kill or injured the highest number of people and are most often placed in parked cars, trash cans, and elsewhere in the open. Bomb attacks on objects carried out after their careful selection. They are more important to the terrorists than the object itself consequences of the attack against it - direct and indirect damage to its decommissioning.

Objects of attack can also have a symbolic character - representing mainly signs of power in this case, the destructive effect of the action is not decisive.

It is supposed to be a provocation against power, or even directly by insulting it. Bomb attacks sometimes have the character of a series of attacks (campaigns) and are used to meet special requirements - e.g. Dismissal imprisoned terrorists, etc.

This area of forms of terrorism includes the sending of letters bombs.

Terrorist actions can focus on inducing secondary effects emergencies, such as in the event of war, attacks by conventional sources on infrastructure e.g. on the:

- chemical equipment,

- nuclear installations,

- transport hubs and systems.

Although these phenomena are similar to peaceful accidents, they are triggering in

terms of triggers mechanism vary in the extent and rate of onset of destructive factors.

At present, there is no effective prevention, or rather it is very difficult because of the actions terrorists are mostly unpredictable. The procedure for rescue and liquidation work depends on the condition of the debris of the object.

The evaluation of the situation depends on the extent of disruption of individual objects. Sorting and division of the affected is in progress similar to war conditions.

The difference is that this is a period of general peace, so in an endangered area

the principles of peaceful medical care apply. Terrorism is a very complex social one

phenomenon that can be understood as the systematic perpetration of violence in order to provoke fear, enabling policy objectives to be achieved. As one of the many forms of violence is not new phenomenon. It has undergone extremely dynamic development, especially in connection with the emergence of and the demise of the bipolar security system of the world.

Globalization has not escaped either terrorism and so today it is often associated with the adjective global. It is a symbol of terrorism often considered an explosion, scattering the existing. Already in the early days of terrorism discovered in a scarred form the image of an anarchist as a man with a long chin holding in hand a spherical bomb from which protrudes a rotting incendiary cord. Forms of terrorism are due to its versatility and vastness extremely varied. In a number of manifestations terrorism, their analysis defines the types, kinds and forms of terrorism. This is a matter which, in view of the changing nature of terrorism, is being continuously developed, in particular in connection with its current causes, sources and manifestations.


Terrorism as a new form of war differs from the classic war at the interstate level

position of its main actors. In the case of the classical war, they are states or coalitions, their armies and, increasingly, their populations. States and coalitions of states, appear in active role of security policy actors and refer to the vital interests of their population as the main reference object. In contrast, terrorists expose the state and its population into the role of attacked and blackmailed objects - they manipulate its public and evoke responses commensurate with their interests, goals and ideas.

The moment the confrontation begins, they are thus the only active subject. They strike at the target to attract attention, to create an atmosphere of fear, to destabilize the state, his credibility and authority or to force a change in its foreign policy. To ourselves they attribute the role of security policy actors and as a reference object of their strategy issue the interests of certain sections of the population.t is impossible to hide in the classical war before other preparations for its launch. Other states know about them and have time to prepare to deter aggression. Terrorist groups, on the other hand, strike without previous declaration of war, they are preparing for an attack in conditions of strict secrecy typical of the small and closed communities of conspiratorial organizations.

The blow is unexpected, the states and their public opinion are shocked, sometimes paralyzed into it to the extent that terrorists can even seek to break their will to resist.the most significant difference between terrorism and classical war depends on the methods of leadership armed struggle. Classical wars are direct frontal battles of the state against the state, or coalition against coalition and take place on one or more fronts. They strive for achieving the benefit of surprise, but in principle it is bown who the enemy is his goals and strengths, what he can deploy, where he can strike.

War is therefore defined as "direct violence between state officials ” In contrast, terrorist groups indirectly strategy, they fundamentally avoid direct, frontal combat, they attack insidiously and unexpectedly. They hide in the shadows for a long time to keep it when it is least expected, when it is it suits them the most and their victims the least. They affect society in the most sensitive and the most vulnerable points. They achieve something that is almost impossible in a classic war - they completely bypass the strongest elements of their victim's defense, they also put those out of the game the most expensive and sophisticated systems intercontinental missiles, aircraft ships, tanks, command and staff systems.

There have been two qualitative developments in the development of terrorism I change. The first was the one that occurred in the 1970s - terrorism happened international phenomenon and currently related manifestations we refer to as traditional.

The second qualitative change occurred during the 1990s, when terrorism gained ground global dimensions.

These are most often expressed in terms of current or new terrorism, but they do exist and other attributes - global terrorism, superterrorism, hyperterrorism, etc.

In the past, they were one of the basic types of traditional terrorism as a form of struggle for national independence, terrorism against the state, state terrorism and terrorism against the international order. In recent literature, the basic types are considered socio-revolutionary, ethnic-nationalist and religious terrorism, which can take place both internally and internationally. Although the history of modern terrorism began with revolutionary groups,it lasted longer religious and ethnic groups have activities.

By Mr. Tibor Szabo, Official Member of the IPO Section Slovakia

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