Non - Military Security Risks
The 1990s are a milestone in the development of the world's security system. After the demise of the bipolar system and the associated threat of global warfare, two basic types of security regions began to emerge.
The first- the type is security stable regions in which war in the classical form becomes unlikely. From a simplified point of view, this is the part of the Earth described as the rich North, ie especially the NATO and EU states, as well as the countries that are closely connected with them.
Type are regions where the security situation is unstable.
They experience contradictions from the past and new political, socio-economic, ethnic, confessional and other contradictions. In connection with power-political factors, they create various manifestations of tension in them.
The way to solve problems can escalate into several forms of violence, including armed conflict. Some countries in these regions have strong military potential, which they continue to innovate, either through their own production or through the purchase of weapons and military equipment.
At the same time, they consider military actions to be an appropriate and proportionate means of promoting their interests. In fragile regions, therefore, the risk of armed conflict is greater than in the previous period.
There is sometimes talk of a third, marginal type of region, usually called a gray zone. These are relatively stable security regions, where there is a high probability that strong destabilizing tendencies may gradually develop in them due to various factors.
Without the deployment of the army-
The security stability of the regions is multidimensionally reflected in the prosperity of society. It significantly conditions the economic, social and cultural development of states more than in the past and is becoming an important criterion also in the pace and level of their involvement in integration processes. Therefore, the formation and maintenance of security is not only a problem of the security policy of the state, but also a problem of society as a whole and, from the point of view of international relations, worldwide. Phenomena affecting the stability of the security situation include the emergence of security risks and threats, which are the most dynamically changing element of the security environment. According to experts, their development can be predicted only in the medium term, for a maximum period of 10 years.
The change in the view of security risks and threats has been created by the fact that in stable regions today non-military threats pose a greater threat than military risks and threats. Non-military is considered to be the part of the manifestations of armed violence for the elimination of which it is not appropriate and sometimes not even possible to use military force. This includes phenomena that do not have the immediate character of armed violence, but in the event of mass expansion can endanger the security of individuals, social groups, state authorities, destabilize or even disintegrate society.
A problem non-military security risks and threats cannot be narrowed down only to the police or criminal side. Their changed role in creating and maintaining security stability should be reflected in the full breadth of the non-military side of security policy. Intelligence services also have an irreplaceable role to play in this area. The growing importance of the non-military side is also changing the role of the armed forces - it is narrowing compared to the past, which should also be taken into account in their construction and reform.
Main destabilizing factors-
Non-military risks and threats include a wide range of different phenomena.
Some aspects of crime and environmental moments are also included.
In particular, the following are considered to be the phenomena that may pose the greatest threat to safety:
1. Organized crime. It manifests itself in particular in the proliferation of drugs, smuggling of goods and people, illicit trafficking in arms and dual-use materials, money laundering, financial and economic fraud. It seeks to penetrate economic, financial and business circles and to influence state authorities. It uses corruption and violence. Organized crime represents the largest and most diverse part of these risks and threats and usually has an international connection.
2. Long-term socio-economic stagnation or decline. Its most significant feature is high unemployment, which is reflected mainly in negative phenomena in the social and demographic area, but also in chaos, disorder and disruption in other areas of social life. It destabilizes the security situation in a different way than organized crime. The long-term inability of the state to solve the socio-economic problems of broad sections of the population causes societal manifestations of hopelessness, frustration and tension, which can lead to the spread of violence and other crime throughout society. It is also becoming a cause of mass migration.
3. Disruption of information systems and misuse of information. It is related to unauthorized intrusion into the information systems of state bodies, banks and large companies, leakage of classified information and various illegal use of such data. This is a phenomenon that is historically the youngest, but due to the degree of informatization of society, it can have hitherto unknown consequences for the destabilization of the security of society.
4. Terrorism. It is associated in particular with confessional, national and political extremism. In this area, there are still predominant problems that have not been adequately addressed in the past, but there are also new moments related to current societal problems.
In each of these groups, there are several types of risks and threats, depending on historical developments and traditions, as well as the current political and socio-economic situation, the cultural level, demographic processes and a number of other factors. They are also significantly affected by the nature of the security environment, focus and security polici.
The effects of different types of risks and threats can be synergistic, as they are not isolated phenomena. Mostly these are multidimensional issues that are interconnected. Terrorism also benefits from organized crime, which thrives in a socio-economic context
chaos, disorder and disruption. Social anomalies also create a favorable space for disruption of information systems and misuse of information. Social and cultural poverty also underpins the growth of organized crime. It also provokes greater intolerance towards some social groups and translates into an increase in xenophobia, racism and extreme nationalism, which can result in terrorist activities.
Complexity and the danger of non-military risks and threats lies in the fact that they are not as visible and quantifiable as elements of traditional military threats - the state of persons, weapons and military equipment, their readiness to conduct armed conflict, etc. Their resources are also more diverse than the sources of risks and threats that arise in the military field.
The bearers of these risks and threats are often not obvious and sometimes even try to hide from the public. In addition, many processes in this area are latent.
The difference between military and non-military risks and threats is that non-military risks and threats operate significantly within the state and use its mechanisms, which does not exclude the connection with the external. Military risks are associated almost exclusively with external influences. Some processes of globalization and informatization also create suitable conditions for exposure to non-military security risks. Different and common features-
Non-military risks and threats operate in three directions in terms of Slovakia's external security.
The first is regional security.
The second, which is decisive, is continental, European security.
The third is global, global security, into which Slovakia enters through the continental security dimension.
A specific analysis of the effects of non-military risks and threats should be based on knowledge of their manifestations and carriers.
If this knowledge is to be the starting point for the preparation of steps and measures of the state and its bodies against the effects of these phenomena, police surveys or extensive statistical data are not enough.
Determining the procedure for reducing and eliminating the danger of their action requires, first of all, the disclosure of the causes and trends of development, systematic political,
Speeches- non-military risks and threats vary in different security environments.
The disruption of information systems in the USA, in JZR, has a different form.
The effects of organized crime in Austria, Ukraine and Slovakia are different.
The problems with illegal migration are different in Romania, Germany and Slovakia.
The danger of terrorism is different in France, Russia and Slovakia. Regardless of differences in regions, countries and their affiliation to international organizations, these negative elements also have common features. In the conditions of world globalization, security also becomes indivisible.
The relationship between internal and external security is also gaining ground. Without solving the internal security problems of states, it is not possible to achieve international security.
By Mr. Tibor Szabo, Official Member of the IPO Section Slovakia